As a widely prescribed antibiotic, fluoroquinolones are used for the purpose of treating pneumonias, UTI’s, bronchitis, and sinusitis issues (Golomb, Koslik, & Redd, 2015). The pharmacokinetic property of fluoroquinolones is that they distributed throughout the body through the extracellular and intracellular fluids and concentrate in the lungs, prostate and bile (Werth, 2018). The Pharmacodynamic aspect of fluoroquinolones is that they work by targeting bacterial enzymes called DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. This action makes it hard for bacteria to multiply within the body, enhancing the effectiveness of this drug (Robinson & Woo, 2015).
The pharmacokinetic aspect of antilipidemic drugs, or statins, is that they are absorbed in the body through the liver, therefore increasing the livers ability to remove the bad cholesterol in the body.
The pharmacodynamic aspect of statins are that they inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase and therefore controls the rate of cholesterol production in the body (Robinson & Woo, 2015). When a patient is taking a statin, the effects are often shown to decrease the intracellular production of cholesterol. This was shown in a study of patients who were infected with HIV, and wanted to understand statin effects and protein regulation (Filippi et al., 2020).
The Factors that Influence the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics — Selective Serotonin Inhibitors and ACE Inhibitors
Selective Serotonin and ACE Inhibitors are some of the popular groups of drugs. In this case, selective Serotonin Inhibitors such as citalopram, fluvoxamine, and escitalopram are administered in treating depression. They limit the blood from absorbing serotonin from the brain. The increase in this neurochemical in the brain relieves the level of depression (Woo, & Robinson, 2020). The pharmacokinetics of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) entails relaxing the blood vessels, resulting in low blood pressure. The ACEI prevents body enzymes from secreting angiotensin II, which is often responsible for vasoconstrictions of blood vessels associated with elevated blood pressure. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of both drugs are subject to various factors, including genetics and patient demographics.
For instance, the effectiveness of Selective Serotonin Inhibitors (SSIs) can be influenced by psychological factors like trait and state of anxiety and genetic factors. For instance, Tracy et al. (2016) explain that the metabolism of SSRIs is initiated by P450 (CYP) enzymes of the liver, which vary genetically to the extent that they affect the rate at which the drug is cleared. Indeed, the study by Maggo et al. (2019) revealed significant differences in correspondence between CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 phenotypes of participants and history of tolerability of the antidepressant.
Genetics also plays a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ACE inhibitors. As documented by Flaten and Monte (2017), the ACE gene comes in variants associated with deletion, insertion of repetitions of Alu typical to intron 16. These variations have been linked to myocardial infarctions. A study on Malayan patients revealed that ACE can be effective for D/D genotype patients, as it is characterized by elevated ACE serum levels and activity that supports the inhibition process. The effectiveness is also subject to patient demographics such as gender. For instance, the rate of Angioedema, a common side effect, is common among women than men. This difference is attributable to the role of the C2399A variant among women. Moreover, ACE gene variants such as rs4267385 and rs4459610 are a protective factor against side effects such as coughs (Flaten and Monte, 2017). Therefore, physicians need to consider these factors when administering these drugs.
Your responses should be in a well-developed paragraph (300-350 words) to each peer. Integrating an evidence-based resource that is different than the one you used for the initial post.
Your responses to each peer’s chosen drug categories should include one evidence-based article that connects culture, genomics, pharmacogenomics, or a particular age group (infant or pregnancy, for example.)