In almost all educational settings, today’s teachers will be asked about the nature of different score-reporting techniques. This Mastery Check focuses exclusively on the three most frequently employed ways of describing a student’s performance on a standardized test, namely, percentiles, grade-equivalent scores, and scale scores. Your task is to provide (a) a description of the nature of each of the score-reporting techniques and (b) one or more advantage and disadvantage of each score-reporting procedure. Please assume that you are a teacher in a school district whose students are required each spring to complete a state-developed accountability test as well as a nationally standardized achievement test. Results of these two tests are reported to each student’s parents during the following summer. In one or both of these tests, the following three reporting indicators are used: (1) percentiles, (2) grade-equivalent scores, and (3) scale scores. Accordingly, during the initial Parents’ Night of each new school year, you and the other teachers in your school are usually peppered with parental questions about the meaning of these three reporting procedures. Two newly certified teachers at your school have asked you to help them prepare for what they have heard might be a potentially embarrassing interaction during the upcoming Fall Parents’ Night. These two “rookie” teachers confess to you that they know almost nothing about any of the three reporting mechanisms used to describe district students’ performances. You agree to summarize the bare essentials, as well as the pros and cons. You promise to send your summary as an e-mail attachment to the two novice teachers so that they can, if needed, refer back to your description in advance of the approaching Fall Parents’ Night. Please write up such a description focused on descriptions, advantages, and disadvantages in less than 500 words.